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您為什麼失眠?

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您為什麼失眠?

引起失眠的原因較為複雜,但主要因素可分為環境因素、疾病因素和心理因素三大類。

  適宜的睡眠條件與環境,對於失眠者來講是非常重要的。如乘飛機到異地而造成的時差性失眠,雜訊造成的失眠,在城市中極為常見。疾病造成的失眠症,常與疾病伴隨發生,且與疾病的轉歸有著密切關係。因此要重視因疾病造成的失眠。

  心理因素,例如情緒緊張不安,心情抑鬱,過於興奮、生氣憤怒等能引起失眠。有學者研究出現,在300例失眠患者中,其中85%的人是由於心理因素引起的。

憂鬱症、神經衰弱、精神分裂症的病人大多失眠。心理因素對失眠有著重要的影響,反過來失眠又影響到人的心理。失眠使人精力不足,精神萎靡,注意力不集中,情緒低沉,使人急躁、緊張、易發脾氣,降低人的學習效率與工作效率。長期失眠有可能使人的感受能力降低,記憶力減退,思維的靈活性減低,計算能力下降,還會使人的情緒狀態發生一些改變。

失眠對人的心理影響程度不僅取決於失眠的長短和嚴重的程度,而且在相當大的程度上取決於失眠患者的心理狀態和對失眠的認識態度。有人雖患有嚴重的失眠,精神狀態仍很正常;但有人即使偶爾失眠,也是叫苦連天,情緒一落千丈,嚴重影響工作與學習。消除對失眠的恐懼感,對夢有正確的認識,講究睡前心理衛生是預防與治療失眠的重要心理條件。

  在眾多的因素之中,最重要的是心理、精神因素,它約占慢性失眠患者的半數。短時間失眠,常是因環境應激事件引發,而一旦這種應激逐漸消退,就可恢復正常睡眠;而長期失眠者,憂慮是失眠的最常見的病因。

  服用中樞神經抑制劑的病人形成耐藥性或撤藥時可繼發失眠;另一方面,長期服用中樞興奮劑也可引起慢性失眠。嗜酒而有酒精依賴者突然停飲可引起嚴重的失眠;有的特殊藥物如避孕藥等,也有可能引起失眠的副作用。

  精神疾病伴發失眠症,尤其是各種情緒障礙,是導致失眠的常見原因。恐懼症、焦慮症、疑病症、強迫症與失眠的關係都很密切。事實上,各種疾病伴發焦慮時都能引起失眠,尤其多見於入睡困難,易驚醒,多惡夢。

  睡眠誘發呼吸障礙伴發的失眠雖然不多見,如睡眠呼吸暫停綜合征、中樞型睡眠呼吸暫停綜合征等疾病,也是誘發失眠症的因素之一,特別是老年患者易出現這類情況。
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