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防治近視 要從小開始

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防治近視 要從小開始

近視是我國學童眼睛健康的最大問題,根據衛生署的調查顯示,每五位小學新生中就有一位患有近視。

近視的原因,可分先天和後天兩大類:

[B][color="lime"]1.先天遺傳:[/B]即病態性高度近視,患者往往在幼兒時,就有較長的眼睛長度,長大後甚至度數會超過二千度,因為是遺傳所致,所以目前無有效的方法可以阻止其繼續加深。

[B][color="Lime"]2.後天環境因素:[/B]屬於多因素造成,但一般認為主要是近距離的用眼過度及生活空間狹窄等環境影響。

要預防近視,最好是不要太早有近視,因為年齡越小,度數加深也就越快。
所以,不要讓孩子太早過度學習近距離的事物,例如珠算、鋼琴等。

有近視者在升學期間,度數會持續加深,一般在18~20歲左右度數才會穩定。
不過近年來電腦工作者增加,超過20歲後度數持續惡化的現象時有所見。

萬一有了近視,要防止度數的加深,須配合良好的閱讀習慣及閱讀環境。看書、寫字光源應置於左後方且光線充足,但不能過量而刺眼,眼睛與書面距離35公分。

看電視距離應保持約電視畫面對角線的七倍,電視高度應比眼睛稍低,最好看40~50分鐘休息5~10分鐘。

打電腦應與螢幕保持約50公分的距離,視線向下約20~30度,打電腦每30分鐘,休息5分鐘,而小孩子一天玩電腦時間不能超過60分鐘,
此外,規律生活、均衡營養、多做戶外活動以及充足的睡眠,均有利於眼睛的保健。

在藥物方面,可點散瞳劑,其中又以長效型阿托品較具效果。點阿托品時,會有畏光及近距離看不清楚的副作用,可利用戴遮陽帽及太陽眼鏡與戴多焦點鏡片來改善。

大於600度的高度近視患者,容易有青光眼、白內障或視網膜疾病等併發症,所以應從小建立良好用眼習慣,避免惡化成高度近視。
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