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assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 1 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 鼻塞之成因 - 健康 - 噓!論壇 _ 無忌的論壇 ~ 歡迎芝麻小事,別聊國家大事 ~

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鼻塞之成因

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鼻塞之成因

鼻塞,顧名思義乃鼻道因某種原因造成呼吸不順之症狀,想要了解鼻塞成因得先從鼻子的解剖及生理著手。鼻子分外鼻部及內鼻部,外鼻部由鼻骨、上側軟骨及下側軟骨組成,內鼻部分鼻中隔及外側壁。鼻中隔將鼻腔分成左右兩邊,外側壁由上、中、下鼻甲及上、中、下鼻道和鼻竇開口組成。鼻腔之生理功能包含呼吸、過濾、調控吸入空氣溫溼度、嗅覺、鼻反射及內分泌等。正常人鼻子呼吸之過程由前鼻孔、鼻腔、後鼻孔、鼻咽部、口咽部進入喉部往下到氣管,因此這整個通道若因解剖結構及生理功能出現異常,皆有可能導致鼻塞產生。

[B][color="DarkGreen"]常見原因有:
一、鼻炎:[/B]鼻腔的黏膜發炎稱之,分成過敏性鼻炎及非過敏性鼻炎;過敏性鼻炎是台灣環境常見的疾病之一,最常見的過敏原為家塵及螨類,症狀除了鼻塞,還常見流鼻水、打噴嚏、鼻涕倒流等。而非過敏性鼻炎包含因病毒或細菌造成的感染性鼻炎,還有因溫溼度、壓力變化造成自主神經刺激而產生的血管運動性鼻炎等。

[B][color="darkgreen"]二、鼻甲肥厚:[/B]
鼻甲由鼻甲骨及黏膜組成,可能因先天鼻甲骨肥大或後天陰極並造成黏膜水腫或增生。一般民眾常誤以為從前鼻孔看到的組織是長鼻息肉,事實上,只不過是正常的下鼻甲或肥厚的鼻甲罷了。

[B][color="darkgreen"]三、鼻中隔彎曲:[/B]
大部分的人先天上多少會有鼻中隔彎曲現象,有些是因外傷導致,但是否會造成鼻塞因人而異。有些更合併鼻甲肥厚而加劇鼻塞,若藥物治療無效,可接受手術矯治,效果十分顯著。

[B][color="darkgreen"]四、鼻竇炎:[/B]
臨床上,急性鼻竇炎指的是鼻竇發炎在一個月內未痊癒者,超過三個月仍有症狀才稱之慢性鼻竇炎。常見的症狀為鼻塞、膿鼻涕、鼻涕倒流、咳嗽、臉部腫脹、頭痛、鼻部異味等。通常須抗生素使用10至14天,若藥物治療無效常須接受鼻竇引流手術。

[B][color="darkgreen"]五、鼻息肉:[/B]
鼻息肉呈現單顆或多顆淡黃至清色之外觀,主要是因發炎造成鼻腔黏膜水腫而膨出如蛋狀的腫塊,常合併鼻竇炎的存在。治療上內科以類固醇藥物,外科以內視鏡手術處理。

[B][color="darkgreen"]六、增值體肥大:[/B]
增值體乃是位於鼻咽部的淋巴組織。增值體肥大一般常見於小孩子,除了造成鼻塞,亦可能阻塞位於鼻咽部的耳咽管開口而造成中耳炎。而大人肥大的增值體須與鼻咽部腫瘤作鑑別診斷。

[B][color="darkgreen"]七、腫瘤:[/B]
乳突瘤極小唾液腺瘤是最常見的鼻腔良性腫瘤,而鱗狀上皮癌是最常見的惡性腫瘤。因腫瘤產生而導致鼻塞,若有流鼻血、鼻涕帶血絲、眼睛運動受限或臉部腫脹等症狀,更須要排除惡性的可能。

以上原因亦有可能多種原因同時存在而加重鼻塞之嚴重性,這些病因一般可由病史、血液抽驗、理學檢查、內視鏡及影像學儀器來診斷,進一步接受相關治療,目前除了藥物治療,常見的外科手術有鼻甲雷射手術、鼻中隔鼻道成形術、功能性內視鏡鼻竇手術等。

新竹醫院耳鼻喉科 陳信傑主任
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惱人的鼻塞,流鼻涕,流鼻血,打噴嚏這些都是煩人的鼻子問題,
在各種鼻病的症狀中,以鼻塞最惱人,我有時候也會流鼻水或鼻塞,
不過我都沒有特別注意它,還好我沒有很嚴重,一段時間就會自己好了,
只是嚴重的時候真的很煩,所以要多多注意才行喔!

鼻塞注意事項:

擤鼻涕動作要輕柔,不可過度用力。

淋浴,或打開蓮蓬頭,坐在浴室裡,呼吸濕潤的溫水蒸汽。

喝大量水幫助稀釋痰液。

如果鼻塞超過1~2星期,最好給醫生檢查是什麼原因。

如果是過敏,醫生可能會開抗組織胺和吸入性抗發炎的藥物。

使用鼻噴劑或滴劑抗鼻塞,最多不要超過3~4天。

小心鼻噴劑成癮。常常使用抗鼻塞的鼻噴劑或滴劑可能會造成鼻滴劑成癮。

也就是愈用愈沒效,愈用愈多才能保持鼻子暢通。而且長期使用可能刺激鼻黏膜,造成慢性鼻炎。

所以,使用鼻滴劑或噴劑抗鼻塞,最好不要超過 3~ 4天。

鼻塞簡易療法:鹽水熱敷

煮一鍋熱水加鹽巴,鹽巴和水的比例,嘗在口中,很鹹即可,擱一下,不可加入冰水,
取毛巾拿來熱敷,每次20分鐘,由鼻子上額竇到上頷竇並且罩住口鼻,
然後脖子前後也要熱敷,尤其頸動脈處,後頸耳下到肩膀處,剛用完時會有舒暢感,
鼻塞可改善一點,分泌物痰會增多,很容易排出,會愈來愈淡,直到鼻塞轉好,
如果用個二到三次會更理想,彷彿可以讓氣血循環並且讓毒素排出,
這方法簡單方便,給有鼻塞困擾的人試試看喔!
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