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assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 Notice: Use of undefined constant tags - assumed 'tags' in /websites/forum2008/viewthread.php(601) : regexp code on line 2 六種簡單正確的退燒法 - 親子 - 噓!論壇 _ 無忌的論壇 ~ 歡迎芝麻小事,別聊國家大事 ~

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六種簡單正確的退燒法

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六種簡單正確的退燒法

寶寶從小到大,或多或少都有些發燒的症狀發生,有的父母會急得像熱鍋上的螞蟻,到處求醫問診;有的父母,則只求孩子迅速退燒,吃的、塞的通通來,事實上,過與不及,對孩子的健康都是一種負荷。

哪些原因會引起發燒——識別孩子發燒「假」現象

引起小兒發燒的原因有很多,大體而言可分為以下三大類:

[B][color="MediumTurquoise"]一、外在因素:[/B]

小兒體溫受外在環境影響,如天熱時衣服穿太多、水喝太少、房間空氣不流通。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]二、內在因素[/B]:

生病、感冒、氣管炎、喉嚨發炎或其他疾病。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]三、其他因素:[/B]

如預防注射,包括麻疹、霍亂、白喉、百口咳、破傷風等反應。

發燒只是疾病的症狀之一,而不是全部。小兒科主任宋文舉醫師表示,醫師對於發燒,在乎的是疾病本身的影響及進展,但通常父母只看到疾病外表,如發燒、嘔吐、咳嗽,就慌亂不已。殊不知醫師治病,首重病因的發現及能完全治癒的方法,而不是單純只為退燒而已。所以在某些情況下,會讓發燒症狀持續表現出來,以探尋內在真正的病因。因此,他提醒愛子心切的爸媽,切記不要一味的要求醫師退燒,去治療發燒症狀,而是應遵從醫囑,準確的找出引起發燒的真正原因,對症下藥。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]發燒不會「燒壞腦子」——退熱是否必要[/B]

寶寶一發燒,父母親之所以會立即抓狂,不外乎是存在一個傳統觀念,認為孩子發燒會燒壞腦子。小兒科主任丁綺文醫師表示,發高燒本身,是不會使「腦筋變壞,智能變差」的,以往有這樣的誤解,是因為醫療知識尚未普及,發高燒背後的原因沒有區分清楚。

其實,只有腦炎、腦膜炎等疾病腦質本身受病毒破壞才會傷及智能或感官機能,而非發燒把人燒笨,燒聾了。她進一步強調,嬰幼兒體溫控制中樞穩定性不如成人,輕度的病毒感染也可能高燒40℃,發燒時父母只要知道如何處理,至於診斷病因應該交給專業的醫師,不必過份憂心。

根據統計,不論是什麼原因引起的發燒,體溫很少超過41℃,如果超過這個溫度,罹患細菌性腦膜炎或敗血症的可能性比較高,應特別警覺。至於腦細胞所能耐受的高溫極限,可能必須到41.7℃,細胞蛋白質才會因高溫變質,造成不可回復的損傷,這種極端的高溫,很少伴隨疾病發生,臨床上惟有對麻醉過敏,引起惡性發燒才可能達到如此高溫。

丁綺文主任說,因為發燒本身不至於傷害孩子,所以退燒是否必要,長久以來一直有爭議。主張不必退燒的學者認為,發燒是一種正常的免疫反應,可以幫助白血球抵抗細菌,分析發燒的型態可以幫助診斷病因,一味退燒反而誤導。不過,多數醫師和學者贊成適度的退燒,因為發燒會增加新陳代謝,造成內在的消耗,病人頭痛,倦怠,心跳加速,非常不舒服,嬰幼兒容易脫水,發燒造成水分蒸發,更是惡性循環,嬰幼兒熱性痙攣的比例較高,放任發燒,引起傷害是不必要的。

民間錯誤退燒觀念和方法——小兒發熱護理的宜與忌

綜觀上述論點,父母應該要有正確的態度,將發燒當作一種警訊。小兒神經科主任趙文崇醫師表示,發燒是因各種疾病引起的身體防衛性反應。研究顯示,身體負責吞食細菌的白血球,在體溫升高時(38℃~39℃)其吞食能力加強。因此當小孩因感冒或其他感染疾患引起體溫升高時,運用各種可能的方法,要把體溫立即降到正常範圍,並非明智之舉。因為這樣可能降低病童本身的抵抗能力。

有些父母會使用民間流傳的一些退燒方法,例如冷水或酒精拭浴來為孩子退燒,這是不適當的。宋文舉主任指出,寶寶發燒時燙熱的皮膚突然碰到冷水或酒精,寶寶反應會很劇烈,可能會造成抽搐;而酒精的氣味又會使幼兒昏睡,像喝醉了一般。

此外,傳統老一輩的「寒到」的觀念,造成一般誤以為發燒時必須多穿衣服,趙文崇主任強調,其實剛好相反。他說,發燒時全身能散熱的地方以皮膚的表面積最大,散熱效果最好,假使能將過多的衣服剝除,大量身體的熱可經由寬鬆清涼的外表排除,體溫很容易下降。

真正危險的發燒訊號——寶寶發燒全程指導

趙文崇主任強調,寶寶發燒病理原因可大可小,嚴重者敗血症、腦炎腦膜炎、心肌發炎等,不處理會導致殘廢或死亡;輕者只是輕微感冒,不理它也會自己好。但這中間的差異若非專業人員實難判斷,有時更須借助檢驗技術才能確實區別。

寶寶發燒,父母固不必大驚小怪,卻也不能掉以輕心,導致病情不可收拾。父母應學會如何有技巧、有知識、有智慧的面對它。當小孩子發燒時會合併其他的表現:如心跳加速、呼吸加快,身體感覺極度不舒服,有食慾不振全身無力的現象,幼小一點的嬰兒不會說話,甚至變得躁動哭鬧不安。此時,適度的處理,使體溫不要太高是合理的,尤其具有發熱痙攣或先天性心臟病的嬰幼兒,更是需要。



[B][color="mediumturquoise"]◇6招簡單正確的退燒法:[/B]

那麼哪些方法是爸媽在未帶寶寶就醫前,可在家中事先處理的呢?綜合專家的建議,作為父母的您,正確的退燒方法應該是:

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]1、維持家中的空氣流通:[/B]

若家有冷氣,維持房間溫度於25--27℃之間。可將幼兒置於冷氣房中或以電扇繞轉著吹,使體溫慢慢地下降,如此幼兒也會感覺舒適些。但如果其四肢冰涼又猛打寒顫,則表示需要溫熱,所以要外加毛毯覆蓋。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]2、脫掉過多的衣物:[/B]

如果寶寶四肢及手腳溫熱且全身出汗,表示需要散熱,可以少穿點衣物。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]3、溫水拭浴:[/B]

將寶寶身上衣物解開,用溫水(37℃)毛巾全身上下搓揉,如此可使寶寶皮膚的血管擴張將體氣散出,另外水氣由體表蒸發時,也會吸收體熱。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]4、用退熱貼:[/B]

有助於散熱,但對較小的幼兒並不建議,因幼兒不易轉動身體,冰枕易造成局部過冷或致體溫過低。使用退熱貼也可以,退熱貼的膠狀物質中的水份汽化時可以將熱量帶走,不會出現過分冷卻的情況。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]5、多喝水:[/B]

以助發汗,並防脫水。水有調節溫度的功能,可使體溫下降及補充寶寶體內的失水。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]6、使用退燒藥:[/B]

當嬰幼兒中心溫度(肛溫或耳溫)超過38.5℃時,可以適度的使用退燒藥水或栓劑。

[B][color="mediumturquoise"]◇如何正確使用退燒藥[/B]

當然,在上述幾種退燒方法中,對爸媽而言,最方便且迅速的是退燒藥的使用,而每位寶寶家裡確實都必須常備退燒藥以因應不時之需,免得臨時半夜發燒束手無策。但丁綺文主任提醒爸媽,退燒藥的使用是有技巧和原則,何時用、怎樣用,平時宜有正確觀念,才不會效果不佳或甚至退燒失控。

她說,退燒藥有水劑、錠劑、栓劑和針劑,一般以水劑較溫和,最普遍使用的是含撲熱息痛的糖漿,如小兒美林糖漿、小兒百服寧滴劑等級,阿斯匹靈錠劑退燒效果也好,但某些特定的病毒感染,例如水痘或流感,阿斯匹靈可能引發雷氏症候群,不宜使用。

栓劑用來塞肛門,由直腸吸收,效果快速,小孩拒絕吃藥時也能退燒,非常方便,但用量寧取少量,密集使用容易退燒過度,體溫陡降,或是反覆刺激肛門,造成腹瀉。打退燒針,是最不安全的,有的孩子甚至過敏休克。退燒的方法很多,一定可以降溫,父母不必一時性急,因小失大。

不同的退燒藥最好不要隨意的互相並用,因為劑量不好控制,還是單獨使用比較安全。還有,退燒藥也不可多服幾次或將劑量增加,以加強退燒的效果。千萬要記住,「藥也是毒」的道理,任何藥物(包括退燒藥)都有它們一定的用法,吃多了即會產生毒性。許多父母因愛兒心切,而把過多的退燒劑給幼兒服用,但卻沒退燒,反而燒得更厲害,因為退燒藥的毒性反應之一,就是讓體溫升高。

總之,寶寶發高燒,父母不必愈來愈緊張,只要按照上述各種建議,觀察寶寶活動力、補充水分、必要時適度退燒,體溫多半可獲得降低,翌日再帶寶寶就醫即可。
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