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小兒過動症10大誤區

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小兒過動症10大誤區

過動症是兒童期最為常見的一種心理行為疾病,患病率達3%-6%,且上升的趨勢明顯,需引起全社會的廣泛關注。目前,來醫院就診的患兒家長對該病的認知相當匱乏,甚至存在諸多誤區,在一定程度上,阻礙了診治的順利開展。

[B][color="Purple"]過動症是什麼?

誤區1:過動症不需要治療[/B]

【辨析】國內外專家一致認為,過動症兒童應儘早診治。近半數以上的過動症患兒成年後,衝動、注意力不集中等仍然存在,不會自然痊癒。

[B][color="purple"]誤區2:治療只是醫生的事[/B]

【辨析】過動症的診治要求家長、老師、醫生以及全社會的共同參與和配合,其中老師和家長的作用更大,他們可以通過言傳身教和心理行為治療,改善患兒的行為。僅僅依賴醫生開藥、孩子服藥,療效只能是有限和短暫的。

[B][color="purple"]誤區3:單純藥物治療就行[/B]

【辨析】過動症強調心理行為治療和藥物治療並重。一般來說,對於輕症的患兒,採用心理行為治療即可,但對中重症患兒,則需要加用藥物治療,才能取得明顯療效。

[B][color="purple"] 誤區4:怕副作用拒絕用藥[/B]

【辨析】任何一種藥物都有副作用和不良反應,目前治療過動症最主要的藥物是精神振奮劑,與其他的藥物相比,精神振奮劑的不良反應還是比較小的。經過國內外半個多世紀的臨床應用,發現過動症的藥物治療對孩子的生長發育和智力等並無明顯的影響。

[B][color="purple"]誤區5:不需要長期服藥[/B]

【辨析】過動症的病程較長,服藥期也比較長,不能間斷。一般以年計,可達數年,甚至有些患兒成年後可能仍需用藥。

[B][color="purple"]誤區6:每天只需服藥一次[/B]

【辨析】要做到全天控制症狀,需要每天服藥2-3次。除非用控釋片,每天只需服藥一次。

[B][color="purple"]誤區7:服藥就能提高成績[/B]

【辨析】由於藥物能提高注意力及自控力,改善認知,患兒服藥後成績可能會提高。如果智力較差、或有其他影響學習的因素存在,即使服藥,學習成績也不一定能提高。更不能將服藥後學習成績的提高作為評價藥物效果的唯一標準。

[B][color="purple"]誤區8:藥物會使孩子變笨[/B]

【辨析】藥物用量過大或劑量增加過快後,有些患兒可能會神情木然。只要合理運用藥物,這種現象就不會出現。至今尚未發現有患兒因服用精神振奮劑引起“變笨”或智力減退的報告。

[B][color="purple"]誤區9:服藥使孩子長不高[/B]

【辨析】精神振奮劑抑制生長的作用與劑量有關,主要發生在服用苯丙胺的患兒身上。停藥後身高會反跳,即使長期服藥也不會影響患兒最終的身高。

[B][color="purple"]誤區10:藥物治療會成癮[/B]

【辨析】服用治療過動症的藥物後,患兒注意力集中,多動減輕,衝動改善,但絕不會產生欣快感及情緒高漲等異常感覺,且所用的劑量較小,即使長期服藥,一般也不會成癮。
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